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Artificial Intelligence

This guide provides information and resources for beginning research on artificial intelligence.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines. It has become an essential part of the technology industry.

Research associated with artificial intelligence is highly technical and specialized. The core problems of artificial intelligence include programming computers for certain traits such as:

  • Knowledge
  • Reasoning
  • Problem solving
  • Perception
  • Learning
  • Planning
  • Ability to manipulate and move objects

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Additional Information

*Automation: What makes a system or process function automatically.

*Machine learning: The science of getting a computer to act without programming.

*Machine vision: The science of allowing computers to see.

*Natural language processing (NLP): The processing of human -- and not  computer  -- language by a computer program. 

*Robotics: A field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots.

*Self-driving cars: These use a combination of computer vision, image recognition and deep learning to build automated skill at piloting a vehicle while staying in a given lane and avoiding unexpected obstructions, such as pedestrians.

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Artificial Intelligence has made its way into a number of areas.

*AI in healthcare. The biggest bets are on improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. Companies are applying machine learning to make better and faster diagnoses than humans.

*AI in business. Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. 

AI in education. AI can automate grading, giving educators more time. AI can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI tutors can provide additional support to students, ensuring they stay on track. AI could change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.

AI in finance. AI in personal finance applications, such as Mint or Turbo Tax, is disrupting financial institutions. Applications such as these collect personal data and provide financial advice. Other programs, such as IBM Watson, have been applied to the process of buying a home. Today,  software  performs much of the trading on Wall Street.

AI in law. The discovery process, sifting through of documents, in law is often overwhelming for humans. Automating this process is a more efficient use of time. Startups are also building question-and-answer computer assistants that can sift programmed-to-answer questions by examining the taxonomy and ontology associated with a database.

AI in manufacturing. This is an area that has been at the forefront of incorporating robots into the workflow. Industrial robots used to perform single tasks and were separated from human workers, but as the technology advanced that changed.

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The machines haven't taken over. Not yet at least. However, they are seeping their way into our lives, affecting how we live, work and entertain ourselves. From voice-powered personal assistants like Siri and Alexa, to more underlying and fundamental technologies such as behavioral algorithms, suggestive searches and autonomously-powered self-driving vehicles boasting powerful predictive capabilities, there are several examples and applications of artificial intellgience in use today.

The possibility of creating thinking machines raises a host of ethical issues. These questions relate both to ensuring that such machines do not harm humans and other morally relevant beings, and to the moral status of the machines themselves.

With the development of science and technology, artificial intelligence slowly changes people's traditional life in a special way. People's achievements in artificial intelligence are closely related to people's innovation. With the gradual progress of science and technology, people have been replaced by artificial intelligence in many aspects. For example, in the game of chess, robot dog Alpha has won the champion of the world championship. We will worry that future machines will surpass humans. From a legal point of view, who is responsible for the accident caused by a self-driving car? Who is responsible for a medical accident in a surgical robot? After the incident, the law regulates this and restricts it, but it cannot remedy the damage that has already been done.

However, there are still many deficiencies in the field of artificial intelligence. Many functions have not been perfected. For example, the robot simulation is not mature enough in terms of the human mind. It has certain limitations on people's understanding and it is prone to crisis. In this regard, artificial intelligence Research must make a breakthrough. However, the legal system that has already been written cannot meet the needs of the society. Humans need to think in advance of the crisis brought about by the development of science and technology and gradually resolve it. In recent years, all countries have plans for the management of artificial intelligence, which better reflects the importance of artificial intelligence ethics and governance. The problems encountered by humans in the development of artificial intelligence are conducive to the elimination of many unnecessary disputes. However, artificial intelligence brings a lot of ethical issues at the same time it brings about crises. It needs to be analyzed and researched to make people aware of artificial intelligence. The ethical issues brought about by the application of technology are concerned with the development of artificial intelligence and better for the benefit of mankind.

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Artificial intelligence applications are everywhere, from the automated production lines in factories to the machine learning algorithms that extract meaning from mountains of data. 

As computing systems become smarter, and as intelligent automation and the economy become more tightly interwoven, people start to wonder … will robots take our jobs? For experts who study such matters, the short answer is yes — some of them. But do not fear. Artificial intelligence applications will also create new employment opportunities never before imagined, boost profitability in the coming decades and fundamentally change the economy from one that depends on scarcity to one that relies on abundance.

Artificial intelligence applications are poised to create three new kinds of jobs: trainers, explainers and sustainers. The trainers will be humans who teach AI systems how to be more human. For instance, customer service chatbots need to learn how to interpret the tone — whether it be anger, sarcasm or happiness — in a caller’s voice. And they need to be trained to show sympathy, compassion and humor to better respond to customer requests.

Then there are the explainers. As AI algorithms become more complex, people will understand them less. Programs designed to analyze large amounts of data to make decisions in advertising, law enforcement, education, government and more may unintentionally contain biases as they arrive at their conclusions.

Finally, sustainers will be those that serve as watchdogs over AI, ensuring that systems operate as designed and uphold the norms of human values. They’ll also ensure that unintended consequences are addressed.

More than a dozen legacy industries stand to benefit from artificial intelligence. By 2035, manufacturing, financial services, and information and communication companies could see the most growth. Companies built around education, healthcare, construction and retail could see bigger profits if they adopt systems that combine artificial intelligence with augmented reality. 

 AI has the potential to boost profitability an average of 38 percent by 2035 and contribute $14 trillion to the economy.

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